The capacity to live and develop in a positive way despite the stress and adversity created by risk factors such as poverty, trauma, abuse and catastrophic life events which ‘stack the odds’ against individuals. Vulnerability to these risk factors is primarily a factor of the social and physical environment. Childhood experience and the social context fundamentally influences the capacity for resilience both because our sense of security or insecurity is formed by it and because insecurity in childhood is likely to lead to emotional difficulties in later life. Thus relationships which provide love, trust and encouragement are primary in modifying the effects of adverse life conditions.

Cyrulnik Boris. Resilience (2009) Penguin Books. London. p.

Goldberg S, Muir R and Kerr J (eds) Attachment Theory: Social, Developmental and Clinical Perspectives.(1995) The Analytic Press. London.

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