Bowlby's four stages of Loss observed through studies of attachment; Klein’s integration of loss in the Depressive Position (see above) and Bowlby’s Loss are seen as essential process for integration and healthy emotional development. .

  • numbing that usually lasts from a few hours to a week and may be interrupted by outbursts of extremely intense distress and/or anger.
  • yearning and searching for the lost figure lasting some months or sometimes for years.
  • disorganization and despair.
  • greater or less degree of organization

(Bowlby’s original 3-phase process of Loss was published in "Processes Of Mourning" Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 42:317-40.

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