A communication technique used in counselling, training and conflict resolution, which requires the listener to feed back what they hear to the speaker, by way of re-stating or paraphrasing what they have heard in their own words, to confirm what they have heard and moreover, to confirm the understanding of both parties.
Agency is the capacity of an agent (a person or other entity, human or any living being in general) to act in a world. The capacity to act does not at first imply a specific moral dimension to the ability to make the choice to act, and moral agency is therefore a distinct concept.
Al Nakba (Arabic for catastrophe) is the name given by Palestinians to refer to the 1947-9 Israeli War of Independence due to the planned expulsion of over 700,000 Palestinian Arabs, the abandonment or destruction of over 400 villages, massacre, and Judaisation of the territory partitioned to the Jews during the 1947-9 Israeli War of Independence. Contrary to UN resolutions refuges are not allowed to return to their homeland.
Asymmetry of power
Political, economic, ethnic, gender dominance of one group over another.
Attachment the gradually developing quality of a bilateral reciprocal affectionate relationship between the infant and mother/primary caregiver. Bowlby derived the term attachment from ethology observation of primates and infants with their parents or caregivers. A secure attachment is a specific kind of relating between infant and primary carer (the attachment figure) whose availability, proximity, and a predictable response, provides the child with a sense of safety. The child seeks proximity to the ‘secure attachment’ figure when sick, emotionally upset, frightened, or in danger, for instance, running to mother when hurt, or a baby ape clinging to mother when a predator appears.
The term derived from observation of infants with their parents or caregivers in which the infants seek proximity in varying degrees to their caregiver for safety when upset, frightened or in danger. Bowlby called the interaction between the infant and caregiver at such time attachment behaviours and patterns; he identified different caregivers’ responses to the child’s need for proximity as either offering ‘secure attachment’ or ‘insecure attachment’.
Secure attachment in human infants is linked to reliable parental emotional responsiveness, which offers recognition and comfort of distress. A reliable ‘secure attachment’ acts as a ‘safe base’ from which to explore and return to as children become independent. From an early age, these children develop the capacity to trust others, recognize other’s distress and to offer comfort, and to trust their own emotional reactions.
‘Secure attachment’ is not only found in the infant-caregiver relationship. Children and adults can later ‘earn’ secure attachment with a close friend, a teacher, a grandparent, or a group which offers a reliable secure base and attachments, and through many other experiences.
These patterns are often repeated in social attachments to groups and community.
Secure attachment in human infants is linked to emotional responsiveness, especially to being able to rely on the parent figures to respond to distress. Babies who are securely attached protest at separation, as when the parent leaves them but are able to reunite comfortably and be consoled or soothed. Children use secure attachment as a secure base to return to as they become independent. They develop the capacity to trust others and their own emotional reactions. When experienced in infancy and childhood, seeking proximity to a secure attachment figure when distressed becomes a lifelong pattern.
Insecure attachment is linked to experiences of unpredictable parental behaviour, lack of responsiveness and soothing, rejection of bids for reassurance and closeness, or even aggression by the parent. Infants can be disorganized, avoidant or clinging in response to such experiences and later exhibit mistrust toward others, either with over-reliance or inability to trust.
Social attachments can also demonstrate some of the patterns described above; for instance, secure or insecure social connection in relation to the community.
when an individual experiences herself, as not being seen, or recognised, by the other, or group, despite being present.
Blood Stain Metaphor
Bassam’s and Itamar’s reaction to blood reminds us of Lady Macbeth’s ‘Out damn spot’ response to her part in killing. She is punished with guilt, anguish, madness, and eventual suicide. Likewise the stain on Cain’s head after killing Abel. The ‘blood stain’ is a metaphor which represents the horror of killing.
Collective identity refers to a person’s sense of belonging to the group or collective. It is thought that this sense of belonging can be so powerful that it overwhelms other aspects of a person’s identity. This ‘identity’ transcends the individual.
As with individuals, groups small and large reconstruct their group experience through stories that may become the official collective narrative of the group. Confronting or changing a collective narrative may be difficult simply because so many are invested in it, emotionally or through the power hierarchy. Individuals attempting to create a new version of the collective narrative may induce anxiety in the group and find themselves the objects of group aggression.
Collective punishment is the punishment of a group of people as a result of the behavior of one or more other individuals or groups. The punished group may often have no direct association with the other individuals or groups, or direct control over their actions. In times of war and armed conflict, collective punishment has resulted in atrocities, and is a violation of the laws of war and the Geneva Conventions. Historically, occupying powers have used collective punishment to retaliate against and deter attacks on their forces by Resistance movements (e.g. destroying entire towns and villages where such attacks have occurred). (Wikipedia)
Societies that have been massively traumatised have followed roughly similar patterns of adaptation and disintegration to individual trauma.
When large groups of people or nations suffer simultaneously from violence and/or social breakdown, as in war or a tsunami, symptoms of disorganization and fear as with individual trauma affect the whole population. Aggression in the service of self-protection is a common response to collective trauma, even when not appropriate or self-damaging; apathy is another common response. When action (the group action or external action?)to remediate a damaging situation is taken the group is less traumatized; when it is impossible, trauma is intensified.
There are many models of the creative process, but most seem to refer to characteristics of, and ability to recognise , imagine, empathise ,reflect, agency, explore, collaborate, and evaluate
To perceive an individual or a human group as devoid of human characteristics and qualities perceiving them instead with animalistic or mechanistic characteristics. Baron-Cohen suggests dehumanization is the result of low or no empathy so that the pain of others is not felt; moral and ethical thought and behavior is likewise suspended. (Baron-Cohen S: Zero Degrees of Empathy. Allen Lane Publishing. 2011). However, Baron-Cohen’s critique does not include cultural, hierarchical, or personal interest or survival as components in dehumanization.
Denial is probably one of the best known defence mechanisms, used often to describe situations in which people seem unable to face reality or admit an obvious truth (i.e. "He's in denial."). Denial is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring. Drug addicts or alcoholics often deny that they have a problem, while victims of traumatic events may deny that the event ever occurred.
Denial functions to protect the ego from things that the individual cannot cope with. While this may save us from anxiety or pain, denial also requires a substantial investment of energy. Because of this, other defences are also used to keep these unacceptable feelings from consciousness. In many cases, there might be overwhelming evidence that something is true, yet the person will continue to deny its existence or truth because it is too uncomfortable to face. Denial can involve a flat out rejection of the existence of a fact or reality. In other cases, it might involve admitting that something is true, but minimizing its importance. Sometimes people will accept reality and the seriousness of the fact, but they will deny their own responsibility and instead blame other people or other outside forces.
(Melanie Klein) The initial depressive position is a significant step in integrative development which occurs when the infant discovers that the hated bad breast and the loved good breast are one and the same. The mother begins to be recognized as a whole object who can be good and bad, rather than two part-objects, one good and one bad. Love and hate, along with external reality and internal phantasy, can now also begin to co-exist. Winnicott found the depressive position in emotional development as an achievement.
Dialogue enables people, usually in small groups, to share their perspectives and experiences about difficult issues. It is used to help people resolve long-standing conflicts and to build deeper understanding of contentious issues. Dialogue is not about judging, weighing, or making decisions, but about understanding and learning. Dialogue dispels stereotypes, builds trust, and enables people to be open to perspectives that are very different from their own.
Dissociation involves a vertical splitting of the ego that results in two or more self states that are more or less organised and independently functioning. they alternate in consciousness ..and emerge separately to think, behave, remember and feel. Such dissociated states are unavailable to the rest of the personality….., creating what are known familiarly as “Jekyll and Hyde” alternations in states of mind, behaviour, and consciousness which cannot be brought together (at that time). Or a person may have less dramatic and hard to identify separations between parts of themselves that were acceptable and unacceptable to their early caregivers. The dissociated self state’s presence is felt through inexplicable or recurrent intrusive images, symptoms and actions, psychosomatic conditions or recurrent nightmares, anxiety reactions, or triggered memories. This also happens in what we call post-traumatic stress disorder.
Its severe form is induced by trauma involving pain, terror or danger and helplessness. When a person’s system of self protection is overwhelmed and disorganized, the traumatic experience is dissociated and encapsulated within the person as a separate self state, disconnected from a person’s ordinary self experience. While dissociation may provide a temporarily effective defense mechanism, this kind of fragmentation produces the severance of normally integrated mind and body functions. Its consequences can be seen in debilitating symptoms produced by post traumatic stress disorder.
Dissociative reaction is somewhat different--it can refer to a state of mind wherein one knows something to be true or have happened, or may be happening in front of us, such as hearing about or witnessing terrible things, but we react emotionally or intellectually as though what happened was unreal or had not occurred. Dissociative reactions occur when people are threatened in some way by knowing about what has or is occurring. We often refer to these reactions as denial. In relation to collective trauma we often see collective dissociation. However knowledge or emotions that have been denied, repressed, split off, or dissociated can be retrieved, acknowledged and integrated into consciousness and the self.
Davies J M and Frawley MG. Treating the Adult Survivor of Childhood Sexual Abuse (1994) Basic Books.
New York Herman J. Trauma and Recovery (1992) Basic Books. New York
Renn P. The Silent Past and the Invisible Present (2012) Routledge. London
Baron-Cohen describes the first stage of empathy as recognition: “empathy occurs when we switch from a single-minded focus of attention to a double-minded focus of attention”. He says we are not only thinking about our own mind, thoughts and perception, but we are keeping in mind someone else’s mind at the very same time. The second stage is to respond to the other’s thoughts and feelings with an appropriate emotion. Baron-Cohen continues:” Empathy makes the other person feel valued, they feel that their thoughts and feelings have been heard, acknowledged and respected” .Baron Cohen explains dehumanisation and evil as the result of ‘zero degrees of empathy’
(Baron -Cohen S: Zero Degrees of Empathy).
The Ethical Mindset with Congruent Behaviours is a concept developed by the Moving Beyond Violence team. The Ethical Mindset facilitates stepping out of denial of destructive collective narratives, and out of violence. This denial refers to the mental roadblocks that prevent us from acknowledging the irreducible humanity of others, overcoming whatever resistance we may have to disqualify difference and thus engaging an Ethical Mindset, accompanied by congruent behaviours.
The MBV multi-stage guided process is designed to explore stepping out of denial and into an Ethical Mindset. The congruent behaviours are those that engage fundamental hospitality and care. They maybe dictates of familial, cultural, religious, or political cultures; the hospitality, protection and care are prerequisites for a safe and just society. Our protagonists’ stories help us identify the internal and external processes which led to their Ethical Mindset. At times of failure the Ethical Mindset may be repaired through Jessica Benjamin’s Moral Third which engages recognition, empathy and a willingness to dialogue in a search for an alternative way.
When the world fails to recognise and stop the pain and trauma caused by conflict by either ignoring it, or supporting either side to continue the conflict. (Jessica Benjamin)
False Self and True Self
False Self is a fabrication of a self which will meet the needs or demands of the carer/other and the infant/adults needs of recognition and love. The True Self develops within a facilitating environment where the infant is held emotionally and physically as in a ecure attachment relationship. (Winnicott)
A freedom fighter is a person engaged in a resistance movement against what they believe to be an oppressive and illegitimate government. (Wikipedia)
An intentional cognitive technique to dissociate from a present physical or emotional discomfort by reproducing and focussing on a positive image associated with a feeling of safety thus reducing anxiety and pain (see scene : Bassam in prison employs guided imagery takes him outside the prison
Guilt is an emotion that occurs when a person believes that they have violated a moral standard that they themselves believe in.
Systematic persecution and murder by the Nazi regime and collaborators of six million Jews and six million left-wing activists, Roma, disabled people, lesbian and gays and others considered sub-human or subversive.
These social categories. Political or national identities may feel threatening to or by others even though at a personal level they accept the people carrying those identities.
A term used to describe a person's conception and expression of their subjectivity within a given social milieu. Contemporary relational theory understands social categories such as race, gender, nationality, culture and class to be core constituents of identity. These are considered to be mandated by the dominant culture. Nevertheless, identity is inevitably personal. It is the emotional self formed within a familial and interpersonal context which gives meaning and significance to.
Avoidant, ambivalent disorganised attachments resulting from unpredictable, rejecting or abusive attachment patterns.
The processes that happen as the result of external stimuli that endure as emotional and cognitive internal structures after the external stimuli have ceased. Later different stimuli may alter the structures, while ongoing similar stimuli will strengthen them.
An unconscious psychic process by which a person incorporates into his or her own psyches the good and/or bad characteristics of another person or object.
Bowlby's four stages of Loss observed through studies of attachment; Klein’s integration of loss in the Depressive Position (see above) and Bowlby’s Loss are seen as essential process for integration and healthy emotional development. .
- numbing that usually lasts from a few hours to a week and may be interrupted by outbursts of extremely intense distress and/or anger.
- yearning and searching for the lost figure lasting some months or sometimes for years.
- disorganization and despair.
- greater or less degree of organization
(Bowlby’s original 3-phase process of Loss was published in "Processes Of Mourning" Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 42:317-40.
Mentalisation is a mental process that bridges recognition and attachment theory which is associated with capacity for mentalising. mentalisation allows us to understand human behaviour in terms of intentional mental states (e.g. needs, desires, feelings, beliefs, goals, purposes, and reasons). Peter Fonagy suggests that individuals with disorganised attachment will have poor mentalisation-abilities. Securely-attached individuals tend to have had a primary caregiver who has more complex and sophisticated mentalising abilities so that as children and later they are more able to mentalise their own and other peoples’ mental states. "The whole idea of thinking about thinking is that we learn about ourselves through being understood by other people. Babies learn about their feelings by having their feelings understood (ie recognised (IS))by someone else." (David Wallin) Wikepedia
The Moral Third is a specific form of the Third; the Third being a function that helps to resolve or transcend binary oppositions and polarities e.g. ‘I’m right, you’re wrong’.
The Moral Third is based in the desire to repair and restore the world, to make it “lawful” based on dignity and respect for each other’s rights and needs. It conceives of a way out of "kill or be killed" impasses where only one can live. This capacity for holding in mind the other develops in the child through the experience that others recognize our needs in a reliable way, or they acknowledge failures and violations of expectation. (see Secure Attachment-Glossary).
That sense of a “lawful world” then extends to the larger world where we expect to give and receive certain kinds of respect and acknowledgment of each other’s humanity. When two people, or a community, are in conflict or get stuck within violent reactivity they need a third position to help them into a space of negotiation or reflection or understanding. The principled basis for that position comes from the recognition of the commonality of all humans despite differences. The psychological basis is the empathic connection to other's suffering that arises when dissociation, fear of the other or repudiation of their humanity does not interfere. This recognition of suffering or violation of lawfulness becomes the basis for the social position of witnessing, as when the world acknowledges wrongdoing or injuries. Orienting to the Moral Third supports action to negotiate differences and respect the other, the stranger, the opponent. Violations of other's humanity are acknowledged. Ultimately the orientation to the Moral Third describes a position in which the gap between beliefs and actions grows smaller.
Stories people tell themselves and each other to make sense of their experience. Narratives can serve the positive function of making people feel cohesive or united with others. But often/sometimes narratives are created or transmitted that define experience in a way that excludes new experiencing or the experience of another point of view. Some narratives are so rigid that when confronted with contrary experience or ideas people become anxious or defensively aggressive.
Nation carries varying meanings, and the connotation of the term has changed over time. Nation can refer to a people, race, or tribe; those having the same descent, language, and history. Or “a community of people composed of one or more nationalities with its own territory and government” and also as “a tribe or federation of tribes” (as of American Indians) or the United States of America.
Occupation (of Palestinian Territories):
Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories through the military and civil administration which maintains the imbalance of power and control of Palestine.
A tendency to project all badness outside the self, all angry or harmful tendencies, and then to feel frightened or persecuted by their appearance in others. it's the opposite of being able to see that one has both good and bad within oneself, and that most others do as well.
A term describing interventions that are designed to prevent the start or resumption of violent conflict by creating a sustainable peace. Peacebuilding activities address the root causes or potential causes of violence, create a societal expectation for peaceful conflict resolution and stabilize society politically and socioeconomically. The exact definition varies depending on the actor, with some definitions specifying what activities fall within the scope of peacebuilding or restricting peacebuilding to post-conflict interventions.
Someone who perpetrates wrongdoing; a culprit, offender, wrongdoer - a person who transgresses moral or civil law, or perceives themselves as having done so. The moral or ethic spectrum may be personal, cultural, or universal. When transgressed it may result in shame, guilt, helplessness, loss of agency and even suicide. Repair may be acknowledging the wrongdoing as a personal, or public act; the act being ‘witnessed’ and forgiven.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
An emotional disorder resulting from an individual’s inability to process and integrate the stressful experience. It is characterised by symptoms on a continuum of multiple reactions ranging from alternating intense hyperarousal to psychic numbing/ dissociation to specific stimuli or memories of the trauma to create resilience.
Projection or projective identification
Projection or projective identification is an unconscious process, a phantasy in which aspects of the self or an internal object are split off and projected onto the other. .
Withdrawing projection – through recognition of the other’s similarities and differences to the self the split off good or bad projected attribute is reclaimed and owned as part of the self. The self is then able to integrate the good and bad attributes into an authentic self, and likewise the other is recognised fors the person they are, with their good and bad attributes. Acquisitive projective identification, where the person being projected onto takes on the split off projected attributes, feelings and role of the person projecting. Projective counter-identification (Grinberg, 1962), where the therapist unwittingly assumes the feelings and role of the patient
Shame is at the core of all emotional wounds. Emotional pain is a gateway into an energy wound. So-called “negative” emotions are flags to let us know when something needs to be healed and/or released from within. Our feelings give us our most direct access into the centre of an energy constriction. Zeroing in on our feelings help we consciously get right to the core, the root cause of all pains/wounds – physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, or psychic.
An activity that is ongoing and takes place in relation to the person involving joint contribution of mental, physiological, physical and social activities. Key psychological processes are thinking, motivation learning, memory, sensation, perception and emotion. They are emergent as they unfold in the daily life of human beings in their interactions.
Psychological trauma results from overwhelming stressful events, and may result in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder depending on the individual’s previous history and resilience.
Recognition that response (from or to) the other which makes one’s own or the other’s feelings, intentions and actions meaningful. It shows that we have had an impact on the other. . It allows the self to realise its agency and authorship in a tangible way. But such recognition can only come from an other whom we, in turn, recognise as person in his or her own right. Recognition is integral to…”differentiation” – the individual’s development as a self that is aware of its distinctness from others. Lack of recognition is associated with victimhood and loss of agency; or dependency on recognition, as Benjamin has discussed, may lead to people engaging in power struggles; ie when people feel their suffering, their point of view, their needs, their value and dignity, or their actions are being denied recognition. Social traumas require social recognition so that people feel their suffering is known, has meaning, and their need for dignity and value is respected. ( Benjamin J.The Bonds of Love: (1988) Pantheon Books. NY.)
In dialogue we engage the self-aware part of the brain and become intentional. There is a relational paradigm where we listen to the other and talk from ourselves. Leads to increased safety, connection and differentiation…. Finally there is an expression of empathy, very much focusing on the present moment” Anderson J. Bridging the Gap: Seeing the Other and Discovering Self. (In Transformations the Journal for Psychotherapists and Counsellors for Social Responsibility Summer 2012.)
The capacity to live and develop in a positive way despite the stress and adversity created by risk factors such as poverty, trauma, abuse and catastrophic life events which ‘stack the odds’ against individuals. Vulnerability to these risk factors is primarily a factor of the social and physical environment. Childhood experience and the social context fundamentally influences the capacity for resilience both because our sense of security or insecurity is formed by it and because insecurity in childhood is likely to lead to emotional difficulties in later life. Thus relationships which provide love, trust and encouragement are primary in modifying the effects of adverse life conditions.
Cyrulnik Boris. Resilience (2009) Penguin Books. London. p.
Goldberg S, Muir R and Kerr J (eds) Attachment Theory: Social, Developmental and Clinical Perspectives.(1995) The Analytic Press. London.
Rupture and repair
Recreation of a relationship after a misunderstanding or breakdown -( Jessica Benjamin)
The offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
Schindler’s List 1993
A film about a German businessman Oskar Schindler who saved the lives of more than a thousand mostly Polish-Jewish refugees during the Holocaust by employing them in his factories. Directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel Schindler's Ark by Thomas Keneally. The film received seven Academy Awards).
An environment where a person has a feeling of safety provided by an attachment figure who is sought out in times of danger, illness, exhaustion or following a separation , the availability of which can be trusted.
Nascent self-states become part of an emerging self that will be comprised of a compliment of dissociated self-states that in healthy development become integrated, harmonious, flexible, and continuous. In children, developing this harmonious compliment of self-states depends on a number of things including a secure base and attuned interaction with caregivers. In adulthood, secure, validating relationships afford the opportunity to find, in Robert Stolorow's words, a "relational home" for our feelings, especially the painful and disturbing ones.
Stepping out of denial
The psychological process of allowing cut off or hidden shameful, or traumatic events, seen or experienced, to re-emerge and become integrated with the core self.
There is neither an academic nor an international legal consensus regarding the definition of the term terrorism. Various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions. Moreover, governments have been reluctant to formulate an agreed upon, legally binding definition. These difficulties arise from the fact that the term is politically and emotionally charged.
During the 1970s and 1980s, the United Nations attempts to define the term foundered mainly due to differences of opinion between various members about the use of violence in the context of conflicts over national liberation and self-determination. Since 1994, the United Nations General Assembly has condemned terrorist acts using the following political description of terrorism: "Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them. (Wikipedia)
The idea of the third refers to a position in which we transcend opposites or hold them in mind without cancelling out one side. Regarding differences with others or enemies, it means a viewpoint from which it is possible to see the validity of more than one side, to see the injuries inflicted and suffering endured by both. The third position, like the third point on a triangle, allows us to relate to both points at the end of the straight line and to create a space. To occupy that space in a psychological sense would mean, as Benjamin suggests, holding to a basic principle of recognition, for instance, that all human beings deserve recognition of their common humanity. We might think of the third as a space of recognition and dialogue, beyond simple oppositions.
(Tertium quid refers to an unidentified third element that is in combination with two known ones. The phrase is associated with alchemy.It is Latin for "third thing")
An event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another.
Acting against the conventional, or conventional morality.
A term used to define a single or repeated overwhelming stressful event, such as emotional or physical abuse, violence, loss, severe accidents, environmental events, which alter a person’s psychological condition and in all probability the brain. Such events are not only terrifying and painful, but may lead to ongoing fear of a repetition of the experience. The fear of repetition of the past feelings or events, triggered perhaps by a smell or sound, then “activates” an involuntary response. Trauma often leaves people mentally disorganized and anxious, suffering loss of cognitive functions and normal emotional responses. This is referred to by psychiatry as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD), a term now used colloquially as well. In PTSD people can be numb or agitated, masking their symptoms or dysfunctional, but any heightened emotional or physical stress will bring about definite symptoms of fear.
It might be useful and specifically relevant to this discussion to include Freud’s statement that the effect of trauma on a person “shatters the foundations of his (sic) life (as a result of which) he abandons all interest in the present and future and remains permanently absorbed in mental concentration on the past” (1917, Introductory Lectures)
Occurs when one’s identity is perceived primarily as having been oppressed, abused or subjected to violence and continuing to see this condition or threat as defining and ongoing. In these circumstances one’s own sense of responsibility or ability to take action are compromised. The identity of victim causes a sense of loss of personal power, or ever having the suffering and abuse recognized.
Victimhood refers to the identity process or state of mind developed in violent and long conflicts, in which at least one party (sometimes both) reconstructs its identity around its victimization by the other side; it describes and defines the situation of conflict the parties live with. Victimhood becomes an integral part of personal and collective identity.... The sense of helplessness can be overcome by impact on the other and the other's recognition of you. (Wikipedia)
A hero displaying bravery and vigour, and courage; the belief that being a warrior serves a higher moral purpose of protecting your family and country. A warrior is prepared to die, to sacrifice her/himself, to protect the country.
A first hand account of something seen, heard, or experienced. ‘Witnessing’ by listening to a person’s story of trauma or sadness offers comfort and an opportunity to reconnect with others; like recognition witnessing helps the victim to overcome helplessness and regain trust and sense of agency.
Holocaust Memorial Museum, West Jerusalem, Israel.
The nationalist movement for the Jewish National Homeland, Israel, in Palestine. Messianic Zionists claim biblical Israel from the Euphrates to the Nile. Political Zionists claim Israel as a Jewish National Homeland, some within the UN 1948 181 Partition Plan while others claim the occupied territories of Palestine as Israel.